of the promotions mix are integrated to form a coherent campaign. As
with all forms of communication. The message from the marketer follows
the 'communications process' as illustrated above. For example, a radio
advert is made for a car manufacturer. The car manufacturer (sender)
pays for a specific advert with contains a message specific to a target
audience (encoding). It is transmitted during a set of commercials from
a radio station (Message / media). The message is decoded by a car radio
(decoding) and the target consumer interprets the message (receiver).
He or she might visit a dealership or seek further information from
a web site (Response). The consumer might buy a car or express an interest
or dislike (feedback). This information will inform future elements
of an integrated promotional campaign. Perhaps a direct mail campaign
would push the consumer to the point of purchase. Noise represent the
thousand of marketing communications that a consumer is exposed to everyday,
all competing for attention.
The Promotions Mix
look at the individual components of the promotions mix in more detail.
Remember all of the elements are 'integrated' to form a specific communications
Selling is an effective way to manage personal customer relationships.
The sales person acts on behalf of the organization. They tend to be
well trained in the approaches and techniques of personal selling. However
sales people are very expensive and should only be used where there
is a genuine return on investment. For example salesmen are often used
to sell cars or home improvements where the margin is high.
tend to be thought of as being all promotions apart from advertising,
personal selling, and public relations. For example the BOGOF promotion,
or Buy One Get One Free. Others include couponing, money-off promotions,
competitions, free accessories (such as free blades with a new razor),
introductory offers (such as buy digital TV and get free installation),
and so on. Each sales promotion should be carefully costed and compared
with the next best alternative.
Relations is defined as 'the deliberate, planned and sustained effort
to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization
and its publics' (Institute of Public Relations). It is relatively cheap,
but certainly not cheap. Successful strategies tend to be long-term
and plan for all eventualities. All airlines exploit PR; just watch
what happens when there is a disaster.The pre-planned PR machine clicks
in very quickly with a very effective rehearsed plan.
mail is very highly focussed upon targeting consumers based upon a database.
As with all marketing, the potential consumer is 'defined' based upon
a series of attributes and similarities. Creative agencies work with
marketers to design a highly focussed communication in the form of a
mailing. The mail is sent out to the potential consumers and responses
are carefully monitored. For example, if you are marketing medical text
books, you would use a database of doctors' surgeries as the basis of
your mail shot.
Fairs and Exhibitions
are very good for making new contacts and renewing old ones. Companies
will seldom sell much at such events. The purpose is to increase awareness
and to encourage trial. They offer the opportunity for companies to
meet with both the trade and the consumer. Expo has recently finish
in Germany with the next one planned for Japan in 2005, despite a recent
decline in interest in such events.
is a 'paid for' communication. It is used to develop attitudes, create
awareness, and transmit information in order to gain a response from
the target market. There are many advertising 'media' such as newspapers
(local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals, television (local,
national, terrestrial, satellite) cinema, outdoor advertising (such
as posters, bus sides).
is where an organization pays to be associated with a particular event,
cause or image. Companies will sponsor sports events such as the Olympics
or Formula One. The attributes of the event are then associated with
the sponsoring organization.
of the promotional mix are then integrated to form a unique, but coherent
the Promotional Mix Exercise